The Psychotherapy Practice Research Network (PPRNet) blog began in 2013 in response to psychotherapy clinicians, researchers, and educators who expressed interest in receiving regular information about current practice-oriented psychotherapy research. It offers a monthly summary of two or three published psychotherapy research articles. Each summary is authored by Dr. Tasca and highlights practice implications of selected articles. Past blogs are available in the archives. This content is only available in English.
…I blog about CBT, negative effects of psychological interventions, and what people want from therapy.
Type of Research
- ALL Topics (clear)
- Alliance and Therapeutic Relationship
- Anxiety Disorders
- Attendance, Attrition, and Drop-Out
- Client Factors
- Client Preferences
- Cognitive Therapy (CT) and Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
- Combination Therapy
- Common Factors
- Depression and Depressive Symptoms
- Efficacy of Treatments
- Feedback and Progress Monitoring
- Group Psychotherapy
- Illness and Medical Comorbidities
- Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)
- Long-term Outcomes
- Neuroscience and Brain
- Outcomes and Deterioration
- Personality Disorders
- Placebo Effect
- Practice-Based Research and Practice Research Networks
- Psychodynamic Therapy (PDT)
- Resistance and Reactance
- Self-Reflection and Awareness
- Suicide and Crisis Intervention
- Therapist Factors
- Transference and Countertransference
- Trauma and/or PTSD
- Treatment Length and Frequency
Effects of Computerized CBT May be Overestimated
So, M., Yamaguchi, S., Hashimoto, S., Sado, M., Furukawa, T.A., & McCrone, P. (2013). Is computerised CBT really helpful for adult depression?-A meta-analytic re-evaluation of CCBT for adult depression in terms of clinical implementation and methodological validity. BMC Psychiatry, 13, 113.
Depression is a major cause of disability in the world, and so efforts to improve access to its treatment have been ongoing for several decades. In particular, many researchers and clinicians propose cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as an effective treatment with a good evidence-base. There have been many clinical trials showing the efficacy of CBT. In recent years, there have also been attempts to computerize CBT (CCBT) as a self help intervention in order to increase its accessibility for those with depression, and perhaps also to improve its cost effectiveness. In fact, the Increasing Accessibility to Psychotherapy (IAPT) program in the UK provides CCBT as the most common first treatment for depression. However there remain questions about the longer term effectiveness of CCBT to reduce symptoms of depression, its potentially high patient dropout rate (a negative outcome), and its effects on quality of life of those burdened by depression. In this meta analysis, the largest of its kind, So and colleagues assess these issues with regard to CCBT. They reviewed 14 direct comparison randomized controlled trials that provided 16 comparisons of CCBT versus a control condition (wait list or treatment as usual) for adults with depression. At post-treatment, CCBT was more effective than controls in reducing depression −0.48 [95% CI −0.63 to −0.33]. However, at follow up (up to 6 months), the effects of CCBT disappeared −0.05 [95% CI −0.19 to 0.09]. Also improvement in functioning and quality of life were not significantly different between CCBT and control conditions, −0.05 [95% CI −0.31 to 0.22]. The rate of drop out from CCBT (32%) was almost double that of control conditions (17%), RR = 1.68 [95% CI 1.31 to 2.16]. There was also evidence of publication bias (i.e., a tendency for some researchers not to publish non-significant findings), so that the positive post-treatment results in favour of CCBT might be inflated.
Although CCBT may be touted as a way to increase access to treatment for depression, this meta analysis indicates some concerns about the widespread implementation of CCBT. The effects of CCBT appear to be limited to a short-term reduction of depressive symptoms that may not be sustained in the longer run. There was no appreciable impact of CCBT on quality of life relative to controls, and so CCBT may have a limited impact on the burden of depression. Most troubling was a high drop out rate of 32%. Drop out from CCBT in the IAPT program in the UK is about 50%, and this may be indicative of the actual drop out rate in real world practice.
Does Continuation of Anti-Depressant Medication Reduce Relapse?
Gueorguieva, R., Chekroud, A.M., & Krystal, J.H. (2017). Trajectories of relapse in randomised, placebo-controlled trials of treatment discontinuation in major depressive disorder: An individual patient-level data meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry.
Individuals with a history of depression who get better have a 30% to 50% chance of relapse in the first year. That is, major depression tends to take a recurrent course, so that about a third to half of patients who initially improve will then experience a re-emergence of symptoms. In this meta-analysis, Gueorguieva and colleagues looked at whether they could identify classes of patients who respond differently to antidepressant medications depending on whether they discontinued or continued with the medications after symptoms improved. The meta-analysis included over 1,400 patients from four studies of duloxetine or fluoxetine (i.e., Cymbalta or Prozac) who participated in a discontinuation trial. A discontinuation trial design involves randomly assigning patients who respond positively to the medication either (1) to stay on the effective medication or (2) to discontinue the treatment and receive a placebo. Such a design gives us an estimate of the advantage of maintenance versus discontinuation of medications to reduce relapse of depression in the longer term. Gueorguieva and colleagues found that 33% of those in the medication continuation condition relapsed (i.e., 33% those who responded well to the initial trial of medications and who then continued with medications had a recurrence of depressive symptoms). By contrast, 46% of those in the placebo/medication discontinuation condition relapsed (i.e., 46% of those who responded well to the initial trial of medications and who then received a placebo had a recurrence of depressive symptoms). In other words, continuation of antidepressant medications resulted in a small 13% reduction in relapse rates compared to continuation with a placebo.
This meta analysis indicates that continuing with antidepressant medications after depressive symptoms remit provides only a modest level of protection against a relapse of depression. Thus continuation with antidepressants after symptoms improve may not be worth it for patients who struggle with medication side effects and complications, or who cannot afford continuation of the medications. There is growing evidence that psychotherapy is effective for preventing relapse, likely because psychotherapy teaches patients ways of coping and interacting with others that allows them to manage life stresses more effectively after the treatment is over.
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy to Prevent Relapse of Depression
Kuyken, W., Warren, F.C., Taylor, R.S., Whalley, B., Crane, C….Dalgliesh, T. (2016). Efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in prevention of depressive relapse An individual patient data meta-analysis from randomized trials. JAMA Psychiatry, 73, 565-574.
Depression results in a high level of disability and its social and economic costs appear to be rising. Although many effective treatments for depression do exist, relapse of depressive symptoms is a significant problem for many who successfully complete treatment. One of the interventions used to prevent relapse is mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). MBCT teaches psychological skills that target cognitive factors that may cause relapse among those who have a history of depression by combining mindfulness training with cognitive interventions. Previous reviews have indicated the efficacy of MBCT for relapse prevention. In this meta-analysis, Kuyken and colleagues update the previous reviews and look at specific sub groups of patients who may respond differently to MBCT. From a comprehensive search of the literature, they identified 9 published randomized controlled trials comparing MBCT to another condition such as usual care, antidepressant medications, or another active treatment. These 9 studies included 1258 patients. MBCT resulted in a reduced risk of relapse in depressive symptoms compared to those who did not received MBCT within a 60 week follow up period (hazard ratio (HR), 0.79; 95%CI, 0.64-0.97). Four studies specifically compared MBCT to antidepressant medication and showed that those who received MBCT had a reduced risk of relapse compared to antidepressants (HR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.60 – 0.98; I2, 0%). The authors also found that the preventive effect of MBCT on depression relapse declined over time. No demographic variables were associated with the effects of MBCT, but higher levels of depression at baseline were associated with a larger effect of MBCT.
The findings of this meta analysis show that MBCT helps to prevent depression relapse in those who have recovered from depressive symptoms. Its effects appear to be superior to usual care and to antidepressant medications. Unlike anti depressants, those who were treated with MBCT learned skills that helped them to cope with stressors that may precipitate another depressive episode. The effects of MBCT appear to be particularly useful for those with greater depressive symptoms at the outset, but those with lower depressive symptoms may not benefit as much from MBCT.
Effects of Combining Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy on Quality of Life in Depression
Kamenov, K., Twomey, C., Cabello, M., Prina, A.M., & Ayuso-Mateos, J.L. (2016). The efficacy of psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and their combination on functioning and quality of life in depression: A meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, doi: 10.1017/S0033291716002774.
Both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy are efficacious for reducing symptoms of depression. Some studies suggest that functioning (i.e., the ability to engage in work, school, and social activities) and quality of life (i.e., satisfaction with these activities and perception of one’s health) are just as important to depressed patients as is reducing their symptoms. In fact, many patients place greater priority on improving functioning compared to reducing symptoms. In this meta analysis, Kamenov and colleagues assess the relative efficacy of psychotherapy vs pharmacotherapy in improving functioning and quality of life. They also evaluate if combining psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy is efficacious relative to either treatment alone. The meta analysis included k = 153 studies of over 29,000 participants. Psychotherapies often included CBT and interpersonal psychotherapy. Compared to control groups (k = 37 to 52) both psychotherapy (g = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.46) and medications (g = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.21, 0.32) significantly improved functioning. Also, compared to controls both psychotherapy (g = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.26, 0.44) and medications (g = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.38) significantly improved quality of life in depressed participants. In studies that directly compared psychotherapy and medications, there were no significant differences when it came to improving functioning, but there was a small significant advantage to psychotherapy over medication for improving quality of life (g = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.43). Combined psychotherapy and medications (k = 19) was more effective to improve functioning compared to pharmacotherapy alone (g = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.18, 0.50) and compared to psychotherapy alone (g = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.14, 0.49). Combined treatment was also more efficacious for improved quality of life compared to medications alone (g = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.11, 0.62) and to psychotherapy alone (g = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.58).
Combined treatment of medications and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment alone for improving functioning and quality of life. However, most patients prefer psychotherapy to medications, and some studies indicate that many patients choose not to get treated at all rather than receive medications. Further, quality of life can be substantially compromised by medication side effects. Clinicians should take these factors into account when considering monotherapy with antidepressant medications or combined treatment of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for depression.
Clients’ Experiential Depth in Therapy Predicts Better Outcomes
Pascual-Leone, A. & Yeryomenko, N. (2016). The client “experiencing” scale as a predictor of treatment outcomes: A meta-analysis on psychotherapy process, Psychotherapy Research, DOI: 10.1080/10503307.2016.1152409
A key issue in existential-humanistic psychotherapy is the degree to which therapy encourages clients to explore new feelings and meanings in relation to the self. This is often called ‘experiential depth’ or simply ‘experiencing’. Carl Roger highlighted the need for clients to increase their awareness, accept their feelings, and use their feelings as information to further explore and understand themselves. The notion of ‘depth of experiencing’ refers to the degree to which clients engage and explore their feelings moment by moment in therapy to increase personal meaning-making. One way of assessing experiential depth is with the Client Experiencing Scale. Low scores on the scale indicate unengaged levels of experiencing, in which clients recount events in an emotionally neutral or disengaged manner. High scores indicate more introspection as clients begin to process their experiences and identify feelings that lead to creating new meanings that contribute to resolving their problems. In this meta analysis of the Client Experiencing Scale, Pascual-Leone and Yeryomenko systematically reviewed the research literature and found 10 studies of 406 clients that evaluated the scale`s association with client outcomes. The therapies in the meta analysis included experiential-humanistic approaches, CBT, and interpersonal psychotherapy. Overall, they found a moderate association (r = .25; 95% CI: .16, .33) between higher client experiencing and better treatment outcomes. The association was similar for different therapeutic orientations and stages of therapy. On average, client depth of experiencing tended to increase from the early to later stages of treatment.
Compared to those who did not engage with their experiences in a meaningful way, clients who were internally focused, engaged in exploration, referred to their emotions, and who reflected on their experiences had better outcomes. Experiential depth allowed clients to create new meanings to resolve personal problems. Therapist interventions that deliberately point the client to a deeper level of experiencing, are likely to result in clients following suit and deepen their own process.
No Added Value to Adding Antidepressants to Psychotherapy
Karyotaki, E., Smit, Y., Henningsen, H., Huibers, M.J.H., Robays, J., de Beurs, D., & Cuijpers, P. (2016). Combining pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy or monotherapy for major depression? A meta-analysis on the long-term effects. Journal of Affective Disorders, 194, 144-152.
Depression is a highly prevalent disorder and is expected to become the second largest cause of disability by 2020. Part of the reason for this high level of burden is that depression tends to be a recurrent disorder with high rates of mortality and morbidity. The post-treatment effects of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for treating mild to moderate depression are comparable, and combining the two interventions appears to result in better outcomes. Treatment guidelines recommend pharmacotherapy for at least six months to prevent relapse of depressive symptoms. But to what extent does combined antidepressants with psychotherapy result in a different response than pharmacotherapy or psychotherapy alone in the longer term? The meta analysis by Karotaki and colleagues was conducted to address this question. They defined psychotherapy to include any psychological intervention between a therapist and patient that was verbal in nature, and that included in-person, internet-based, telephone, or bibliotherapy components. Types of psychotherapy included CBT, interpersonal, dynamic, and problem solving therapy. Only studies with outcomes at six months or longer (up to 48 months) after the start of treatment were included. The meta analysis included 23 studies with a total of 2164 patients with major depression who receive combined therapy in at least one arm of the study. Antidepressants included SSRIs, SNRIs, and tricyclic medications. In the acute phase treatment (i.e., in studies of treatment during the occurrence of depressive symptoms), combining antidepressants with psychotherapy was more effective than antidepressants alone. But combined treatment was not more effect than psychotherapy alone at six months or longer after the start of treatment. In maintenance treatment (i.e., in studies to prevent relapse of depression) psychotherapy with antidepressants was more effective that pharmacotherapy alone. Type of psychotherapy or medication did not affect any of the results.
The meta analysis suggests that in the treatment of patients who currently have depressive symptoms (acute phase) psychotherapy alone is as effective in the long run as combining psychotherapy with antidepressants. However combination treatment is more effective that antidepressants alone, presumably because of the added value of psychotherapy. To prevent relapse (maintenance phase), combined treatment of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy was more effective than antidepressants alone. Psychotherapy may be a viable alternative to combined treatment with medications for treatment of current active depressive symptoms. Psychotherapy often results in patients improving their interpersonal skills and coping mechanisms which they can then use to sustain their improvements in the longer term.