Title: On Current and Future Carbon Prices in a Risky World
Date: April 1st, 2022
Time: 2:30-4:00pm EST
We analyse the optimal paths of abatement and carbon prices under a variety of economic, temperature and damage risks. Carbon prices grow in line with economic growth, but with convex damages and temperature-dependent risks of climatic tipping points grow more quickly and with gradual resolution of uncertainty grow more slowly. With temperature-dependent economic damage tipping points carbon prices are higher, but when the tipping point occurs, the price jumps downward. With a temperature cap the e_cient carbon price rises at the risk-adjusted interest rate. Allowing for damages as well as a cap leads to a higher carbon price which grows more slowly. But as temperature and cumulative emissions approach their caps, the carbon price is ramped up ever more. Policy makers should expect a rising path of carbon prices.
Glenn D. Rudebusch, Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution and New York University
Glenn D. Rudebusch is a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution with the Hutchins Center on Fiscal & Monetary Policy. He is also a Senior Fellow at New York University in the Volatility and Risk Institute of the Stern School of Business.
Title: The Rising Cost of Climate Change: Evidence from the Bond Market
Social discount rates (SDRs) are crucial for evaluating the costs of climate change. We show that the fundamental anchor for market-based SDRs is the equilibrium or steady-state real interest rate. Empirical interest rate models that allow for shifts in this equilibrium real rate find that it has declined notably since the 1990s, and this decline implies that the entire term structure of SDRs has shifted lower as well. Accounting for this new normal of persistently lower interest rates substantially boosts estimates of the social cost of carbon and supports a climate policy with stronger carbon mitigation strategies.
Dr. Lawrence H. Goulder, Shuzo Nishihara Professor of Environmental and Resource Economics, Stanford University
Dr. Lawrence H. Goulderis the Shuzo Nishihara Professor in Environmental and Resource Economics at Stanford and Director of the Stanford Environmental and Energy Policy Analysis Center.
Title: China’s Unconventional Nationwide CO2 Emissions Trading System: Cost-Effectiveness and Distributional Impact
China is implementing what is expected to become the world’s largest CO2 emissions trading system. To reduce emissions, the nation will employ a tradable performance standard (TPS), a rate-based instrument differing significantly from cap&trade (C&T) and a carbon tax, emissions pricing instruments used elsewhere. With matching analytically and numerically solved models, we assess the cost-effectiveness and distributional impacts of China’s TPS for reducing CO2 emissions from the power sector.
The TPS implicitly subsidizes electricity output, which limits its use of output-reduction as a channel for reducing emissions. It also gives power plants with especially low emissions-output ratios intentives to expand output relative to the business-as-usual baseline. These features compromise the TPS’s cost-effectiveness relative to C&T. The use of differing benchmarks (emissions-intensity standards) also compromises cost-effectiveness by distorting relative production levels and by lowering the cost-reducing potential of allowance trading. In our central case simulations, the TPS’s overall costs are about 34 percent higher than those of C&T.
Although the use of non-uniform benchmarks compromises cost-effectiveness, it can help serve regional distributional objectives. We assess the aggregate costs of customizing benchmarks in order to reduce the adverse profit impacts in provinces that otherwise would suffer a disproportionate cost from the TPS.
Dr. Emi Nakamura, Chancellor’s Professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley
Dr. Nakamura is the Chancellor’s Professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley. She is an award winning and highly cited researcher in Inflation and Price Dispersion, Monetary and Fiscal Policy. https://eml.berkeley.edu/~enakamura/
Time: 3:00 pm – 4:30 pm Eastern DST (note a different than usual starting time!)
We estimate the slope of the Phillips curve in the cross section of U.S. states using newly constructed state-level price indexes for non-tradeable goods back to 1978. Our estimates indicate that the Phillips curve is very flat and was very flat even during the early 1980s. We estimate only a modest decline in the slope of the Phillips curve since the 1980s. We use a multi-region model to infer the slope of the aggregate Phillips curve from our regional estimates. Applying our estimates to recent unemployment dynamics yields essentially no missing disinflation or missing reinflation over the past few business cycles. Our results imply that the sharp drop in core inflation in the early 1980s was mostly due to shifting expectations about long-run monetary policy as opposed to a steep Phillips curve, and the greater stability of inflation since the 1990s is mostly due to long-run inflationary expectations becoming more firmly anchored.
Peter N. Ireland, Boston College
A Reconsideration of Money Growth Rules
Friday, November 20, 2020
A New Keynesian model, estimated using Bayesian methods over a sample period that includes the recent episode of zero nominal interest rates, illustrates the effects of replacing the Federal Reserve's historical policy of interest rate management with one targeting money growth instead. Counterfactual simulations show that a rule for adjusting the money growth rate, modestly and gradually, in response to changes in the output gap delivers performance comparable to the estimated interest rate rule in stabilizing output and inflation. The simulations also reveal that, under the same money growth rule, the US economy would have recovered more quickly from the 2007- 09 recession, with a much shorter period of exceptionally low interest rates. These results suggest that money growth rules can serve as simple but useful guides for monetary policy and eliminate concerns about monetary policy effectiveness when the zero lower bound constraint is binding.
Jesús Fernández-Villaverde, University of Pennsylvania
Jesús Fernández-Villaverde (University of Pennsylvania) Cryptocurrencies, Fintech, and All That: Monetary Economics in the 21st Century
Yoosoon Chang, Indiana University Bloomington
Time-Varying Expectation Effects of Switching Financial Uncertainty
Friday, September 18, 2020
This paper investigates how regime switches in capital market conditions affect macroeconomic variables by employing a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model with financial frictions derived from costly-state-verification and a risk process of switching steady-state means. Defining switches to the financial regimes as uncertainty shocks, transition probabilities between financial regimes influence entrepreneurial choices: upon an adverse shock, a bleak outlook of the capital market causes slow recovery of investment. By utilizing a latent factor method, our approach explicitly estimates time-varying transitions resulting from statistical feedbacks from past fundamental shocks to switching of financial regimes. We uncover evidence of time-varying expectations significantly affected by the feedback in the U.S. data and quantify the contribution of each fundamental shock. We also find that our uncertainty factor significantly explains the existing credit market uncertainty measures.
James Morley, University of Sydney
An empirical defence of inflation targeting and the open-economy Phillips Curve from a data-rich perspective
On Friday, September 20, 2019, Professor Morley presented the results of his two ongoing research projects related to empirical analysis of inflation. The first project evaluates inflation targeting in Australia using a factor modelling approach. The second project conducts a cross-country analysis of the open-economy Phillips Curve for a number of advanced and emerging economies (including Canada).
James Morley was appointed as Professor of Macroeconomics at the University of Sydney in 2017 and is Co-Director of the "Global Perspectives on Economic Policy" initiative for the Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. He received his PhD from the University of Washington in 1999 and previously held positions at Washington University in St. Louis and the University of New South Wales, most recently as Associate Dean (Research) of the UNSW Business School from 2014-2017. His research focuses on the empirical analysis of business cycles, stabilization policy, and sources of persistent changes in macroeconomic and financial conditions.
He is an Academic Fellow of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand and has been a visiting scholar at various policy institutions worldwide, including the Bank of Canada, Bank Negara Malaysia, and the Bank for International Settlements. He is a former President of the Society for Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics and is currently Co-Editor of The Economic Record.
Regis Barnichon, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
A Sufficient Statistic Approach for Optimal Monetary Policy (with G. Mesters)
Wednesday, May 15, 2019
If a monetary policy path is chosen optimally, any perturbation to that path should have no first-order effect on welfare. Drawing on this insight, we show that the impulse responses to monetary shocks are sufficient statistics to evaluate the optimality of a given policy, and we propose a “sufficient statistic targeting rule” that preserves all the benefits of targeting rules ---simplicity, transparency and immunity to time-consistency problems---, while remedying their one major limitation: non-robustness to model variations. The sufficient statistic targeting rule encompasses earlier targeting rules from the literature and generalizes the Brainard conservatism principle to a model-free setting. We test the optimality of the Fed monetary policy over the recent period, and we reject that the Fed policy was/is optimal.